# quantum information processing

### Rev. Mod. Phys.:Protecting quantum information against environmental noise

**Colloquium: Protecting quantum information against environmental noise**

Dieter Suter and Gonzalo A. Álvarez

Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 041001 (2016)

Published 10 October 2016

Quantum-mechanical systems retain their properties so long as the phase of quantum superpositions evolve stably over time. Contact with an environment can disrupt this phase evolution. But for environments that do not exchange energy with the quantum system, strategies exist where the controlled driving of the system can recover or maintain the quantum phase. This Colloquium surveys the host of techniques that are available to “refocus” the phase when disturbed by various forms of classical or quantum environment. While the first such techniques were developed long ago, ideas from quantum information theory have introduced new strategies for accomplishing this goal.

### Quantum state transfer in disordered spin chains: How much engineering is reasonable? | Quant. Inf. Comm. (2015)

Analia Zwick, Gonzalo A. Álvarez, Joachim Stolze, and Omar Osenda

Quant. Inf. Comput. **15**, 582-600 (2015).

The transmission of quantum states through spin chains is an important element in the im- plementation of quantum information technologies. Speed and fidelity of transfer are the main objectives which have to be achieved by the devices even in the presence of imperfections which are unavoidable in any manufacturing process. To reach these goals, several kinds of spin chains have been suggested, which differ in the degree of fine-tuning, or engineering, of the system parameters. In this work we present a systematic study of two important classes of such chains. In one class only the spin couplings at the ends of the chain have to be adjusted to a value different from the bulk coupling constant, while in the other class every coupling has to have a specific value. We demonstrate that configurations from the two different classes may perform similarly when subjected to the same kind of disorder in spite of the large difference in the engineering effort necessary to prepare the system. We identify the system features responsible for these similarities and we perform a detailed study of the transfer fidelity as a function of chain length and disorder strength, yielding empirical scaling laws for the fidelity which are similar for all kinds of chain and all dis- order models. These results are helpful in identifying the optimal spin chain for a given quantum information transfer task. In particular, they help in judging whether it is worthwhile to engineer all couplings in the chain as compared to adjusting only the boundary couplings.

via [1306.1695] Quantum state transfer in disordered spin chains: How much engineering is reasonable?.

### Optimized dynamical control of state transfer through noisy spin chains | New Journal of Physics

**Optimized dynamical control of state transfer through noisy spin chains**

Analia Zwick, Gonzalo A Álvarez, Guy Bensky and Gershon Kurizki

Focus on Coherent Control of Complex Quantum Systems:

New J. Phys. **16**, 065021 (2014).

We propose a method of optimally controlling the tradeoff of speed and fidelity of state transfer through a noisy quantum channel spin-chain. This process is treated as qubit state-transfer through a fermionic bath. We show that dynamical modulation of the boundary-qubits levels can ensure state transfer with the best tradeoff of speed and fidelity. This is achievable by dynamically optimizing the transmission spectrum of the channel. The resulting optimal control is robust against both static and fluctuating noise in the channelʼs spin–spin couplings. It may also facilitate transfer in the presence of diagonal disorder on site energy noise in the channel.

### Quantum simulations of localization effects with dipolar interactions | Annalen der Physik – 2013

**Quantum simulations of localization effects with dipolar interactions**

Gonzalo A. Álvarez, Robin Kaiser, Dieter Suter

Abstract:

Quantum information processing often uses systems with dipolar interactions. Here a nuclear spin-based quantum simulator is used to study the spreading of information in such a dipolar-coupled system. While the information spreads with no apparent limits in the case of ideal dipolar couplings, additional perturbations limit the spreading, leading to localization. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 230403 (2010)], it was found that the system size reaches a dynamic equilibrium that decreases with the square of the perturbation strength. This work examines the impact of a disordered Hamiltonian with dipolar interactions. It shows that the expansion of the cluster of spins freezes in the presence of large disorder, reminiscent of Anderson localization of non-interacting waves in a disordered potential.

Keywords: spin dynamics;dipolar interaction;decoherence;localization;disorder;NMR;long range interactions;quantum information processing

Annalen der Physik

Special Issue on “Quantum Simulations“, featuring review papers written by last year’s Nobel Prize winners describing their foundational work (Wineland and Haroche). Issue edited by: Rainer Blatt, Immanuel Bloch, Ignacio Cirac, Peter Zoller.

Ann. Phys. **525**, 833 (2013).

DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300096

© 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

### Robustness of Spin-Chain State-Transfer Schemes – Springer

Robustness of Spin-Chain State-Transfer Schemes

Joachim Stolze, Gonzalo A. Álvarez, Omar Osenda, Analia Zwick

in Quantum State Transfer and Network Engineering, edited by G. M. Nikolopoulos and I. Jex (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014), pp. 149–182.

Abstract

Spin chains are linear arrangements of qubits (spin-1/2 objects) with interactions between nearest or more distant neighbors. They have been considered for quantum information transfer between subunits of a quantum information processing device at short or intermediate distances. The most frequently studied task is the transfer of a single-qubit state. Several protocols have been developed to achieve this goal, broadly divisible into two classes, fully-engineered and boundary-controlled spin chains. We discuss state transfer induced by the natural dynamics of these two classes of systems, and the influence of deviations from the ideal system configuration, that is, manufacturing errors in the nearest-neighbor spin couplings. The fidelity of state transfer depends on the chain length and the disorder strength. We observe a power-law scaling of the fidelity deficit, i.e. the deviation from perfect transfer. Boundary-controlled chains can provide excellent fidelity under suitable circumstances and are potentially less difficult to manufacture and control than fully-engineered chains. We also review other existing theoretical work on the robustness of quantum state transfer as well as proposals for experimental implementation.

via Robustness of Spin-Chain State-Transfer Schemes – Springer.

### Random – but not quite: exploiting quantum decoherence as a tool for characterizing unknown systems | Seminar

**SEMINAR at IV Quantum Information Workshop – Paraty 2013**

Wednesday, August 14th 2013

See comments of the talk at the Paraty 2013’s Blog: Decoupling system and environment.

**SEMINAR at CBPF, Rio de Janeiro – Brazil, August 20th, 2013**

**SEMINAR at FaMAF, Córdoba – Argentina, August 27th, 2013**

**Abstract**

The ability to understand and manipulate the dynamics of quantum systems that interact with external degrees of freedom is a major challenge for fundamental quantum physics and its diverse applications, e.g., quantum information processing (QIP) or precision measurements. Progress in dynamical decoupling has lead to new ways to “protect” quantum bits from external degrees of freedom. Sometimes, however, a little bit of “recoupling” –i.e., exposure to the unknowns of the surrounding medium– can help. In this seminar, I will present a series of experimental methods implemented in NMR where by varying the “protection” given to the quantum states of ½-spins (qubits) can lead to new tools for characterizing unknown systems. In particular, I will show how Dynamical Decoupling noise spectroscopy can probe the spectrum of the environmental noise in order to find optimal methods for protecting the qubits [1]. In a new twist, I will present a method termed Selective Dynamical Recoupling (SDR), where suitable designed pulse sequence applied to the spins can selectively address specific information from the probed systems. SDR can be used to measure coupling strengths to the environment via oscillatory modulations that can serve for example to probe chemical identities derived from chemical shifts [2]. Alternatively, SDR can be designed to selectively measure the correlation time of the environmental noise where its value can be useful to probe diffusion processes in restricted spaces to extract the sizes of pores or cells in a non-invasive manner [3]. Applications of this new and simple approach can be found in materials sciences and biology and in particular it can be useful for investigating the nature of tissue compartmentalization *in vivo*, in manners which eventually could be useful in human and clinical settings.

[1] G.A. Alvarez, and D. Suter. Phys. Rev. Lett. **107**, 230501 (2011).

[2] P.E.S. Smith, G. Bensky, G.A. Alvarez, G. Kurizki, and L. Frydman. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. **109**, 5958 (2012).

[3] G.A. Alvarez, N. Shemesh, and L. Frydman. Phys. Rev. Lett. **111**, 080404 (2013).

### Random – but not quite: exploiting quantum decoherence as a tool for characterizing unknown systems | Paraty 2013

**SEMINAR at IV Quantum Information Workshop – Paraty 2013**

Wednesday, August 14th 2013

See comments of the talk at the Paraty 2013’s Blog: Decoupling system and environment.

**Abstract**

The ability to understand and manipulate the dynamics of quantum systems that interact with external degrees of freedom is a major challenge for fundamental quantum physics and its diverse applications, e.g., quantum information processing (QIP) or precision measurements. Progress in dynamical decoupling has lead to new ways to “protect” quantum bits from external degrees of freedom. Sometimes, however, a little bit of “recoupling” –i.e., exposure to the unknowns of the surrounding medium– can help. In this seminar, I will present a series of experimental methods implemented in NMR where by varying the “protection” given to the quantum states of ½-spins (qubits) can lead to new tools for characterizing unknown systems. In particular, I will show how Dynamical Decoupling noise spectroscopy can probe the spectrum of the environmental noise in order to find optimal methods for protecting the qubits [1]. In a new twist, I will present a method termed Selective Dynamical Recoupling (SDR), where suitable designed pulse sequence applied to the spins can selectively address specific information from the probed systems. SDR can be used to measure coupling strengths to the environment via oscillatory modulations that can serve for example to probe chemical identities derived from chemical shifts [2]. Alternatively, SDR can be designed to selectively measure the correlation time of the environmental noise where its value can be useful to probe diffusion processes in restricted spaces to extract the sizes of pores or cells in a non-invasive manner [3]. Applications of this new and simple approach can be found in materials sciences and biology and in particular it can be useful for investigating the nature of tissue compartmentalization *in vivo*, in manners which eventually could be useful in human and clinical settings.

[1] G.A. Alvarez, and D. Suter. Phys. Rev. Lett. **107**, 230501 (2011).

[2] P.E.S. Smith, G. Bensky, G.A. Alvarez, G. Kurizki, and L. Frydman. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. **109**, 5958 (2012).

[3] G.A. Alvarez, N. Shemesh, and L. Frydman. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2013) – in press. arXiv:1305.2794.